Consideratii privind importanta culturii de sorg zaharat pentru industria biocombustibililor, in vederea obtinerii de bioetanol

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Energy crops are crops for the production of products such as biofuels (biofuel - biodiesel, ecological diesel) and electric or thermal energy. Plants suitable for such energy crops are: woody (energetic willow, poplar, paulownia) and grasses (annual crops such as corn, wheat, rapeseed, soybeans, sweet sorghum or perennials: pampas grass, elephant grass). The article presents arguments for growing large-area sugar sorghum in order to obtain the bioethanol used in the biofuel industry.

ABSTRACT

In this paper are synthesized aspects regarding the energy crops in general, being presented the most important plants that are suitable for the energy crops, as well as the importance of the sugar sorghum culture for valorization as an energy plant. Arguments are presented on the use of sorghum crops to obtain bioethanol used in the biofuel industry.

INTRODUCTION

The field of energy crops is a relatively new field for agriculture. For this reason, many of the energy crops in the world are experimental and some of them have the status of commercial crops. Commercial energy crops are, in most cases, high density crops, set up with high yielding species used for combustion to generate heat. With predominant use, we encounter woody crops, such as energy shrub, poplar or paulownia, and herbaceous plants, which are distributed in annual crops: corn, wheat, rapeseed, soybeans, sweet sorghum and perennial crops: pampas grass , the grass of the elephant). [1]

Salix viminalis "energo" is a fast-growing plant (3.0-3.5 cm / day), bringing 4-6 shoots in the first year and reaching 2-3 m high. In the second year the bush produces 10-25 shoots, of which about half reach the height of

6-7 m and the diameter of up to 3-4 cm. The plant has a high calorific value: 18 000 - 19 000 kJ / kg

Experiences so far confirm an average production of about 30 t / ha at a humidity of 30%, this value . oscillating depending on the soil type and the water regime.

Figure 1 shows an energy willow plantation at INMA Bucharest

Fig. 1- Energy willow plantation

The poplar (Populus deltoides) grows four meters high and has multiple uses: pellets, briquettes, furniture, cellulose, etc. As an energy plant is cultivated mainly on the North American continent, using hybrid varieties, in Romania this culture is perspective. The first cut is fast, at 2 years, and then cut annually for 10 years. It is easily multiplied by the branches planted directly into the ground, without the need for special care. Biomass obtained from harvesting is used either in the form of a heap for the supply of thermal power plants or a shredded chip for pelleting. From one hectare you can get up to 40 tons of pellets, which are sold on average at 120 euros / ton. Figure 1 shows an energetic poplar plantation.

Fig. 2-Energetic poplar plantation [2]

The tree of the princess (Paulownia tomentosa) is the lush tree with the fastest growth. For profitability it is recommended to start the business with at least one hectare of land. Profitability increases as the area of land is higher. Due to the fact that hybrids obtained by crossing several

Bibliografie:

1. http://madr.ro/docs/dezvoltare-rurala/rndr/buletine-tematice/PT10.pdf

"Energii regenerabile in agricultura", Ministerul Agriculturii si Dezvoltarii Rurale din Romania, Publicatie tematica Nr 10, an II; Bucuresti, 2014

2. http://suceavanews.ro/wp-content/uploads/2015/06/plopi-energetici.jpg

3. http://www.infobraila.ro/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/copaci.jpg

4. https://chemarkrom.ro/performante-de-top-pentru-cultura-de-porumb/

5. http://www.emaramures.ro/agricultura-productia-de-grau-de-7296-milioane-tone-este-cea-mai-mare-din-ultimii-opt-ani-ministrul-agriculturii/

6. http://www.sumi-agro.ro/index.php?pg=13&artID=24

7. http://agrointel.ro/72351/cum-se-cultiva-soia-tehnologia-completa/

8. http://www.incdsb.ro/p/biofuels/index.php?pag=ep2

9. http://www.eco-research.eu/CURS%2012%20ECO.pdf

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