As it is stated by . in his paper ,,Modern Terrorism" today terrorism seems to be all around us, it is considered to be one of the most actual topic nowadays.
This paper presents a kind of guide about terrorism. The work consists of: introduction, three chapters, some statistics data and general conclusion.
The first chapter deals with the definition of the word "terrorism" and throws some light on the history of Terrorism.
The second chapter is dedicated to getting acquitted with the most common types of terrorism incidents and its purposes "goals and motivation".
The third chapter presents the most active terrorist organizations witch work nowadays and countries they are sponsored by along with their ideology and goals.
The Statistics shows us the staring with 1982 till 2003, annual Number of Deaths from international terrorism, and some other.
In conclusion the student makes a generalization of the investigation proving that this is the most dangerous and horrible blame of our society and we must fight with it.
Today terrorism seems to be all around us. It is always in the news. Bomb blasts, trials, and plots. Throughout human history mankind has been faced with two ways to bring about change: rational discussion and dramatic violent action. Men and women driven by moral, psychological, and cultural perceptions often become impatient with political processes and the speed at which the wheels of government turn. Humans it seems are blessed with the "gift" of perceiving utopia- the clear vision of a better world. The implementation this Utopian vision has, through the centuries, involved strange combinations of violent terrorism and peaceful yet painfully slow political action. Although humans possess the utopian vision they often do not possess patience or the ability to manage the mechanisms of government with perfection. And so the terrorist finds opportunities to act. Imperfect governments call out to the terrorist to select a more violent course of action. Anarchists believe that we can do without both terrorist and government! Could the "people" do more to contain terror before the plots are hatched?
All around us groups of men and women are raising money for their political causes. In ethnic bars the hat is passed around and the money comes in. Cultural organizations provide valuable forums for violent causes. Are these the best ways to help those inclined to terror to survive in and make positive contributions to society? Certainly the Catholic community of 17th century England did it's part to encourage our conspirators in the pursuit of their violent plot. Perhaps society is the real villain in that it does not do enough to recognize and help those with violent intent to overcome their frustrations? Certainly we all could do more to help government run more fairly and efficiently.
Today we face more than bomb blasts. Technology has given terrorists more tools to inflict violence upon society. Is our only real hope in the control of the means of destruction? After all it was the availability of the highly controlled substance- gunpowder which made our plot possible? But can the ambitions of mankind or his tools of destruction ever truly be contained? And is it not also because this "Pandora's Box" remains open that human institutions of government are preserved from stagnation and tyranny?
1.1. Terrorism: the definition of
The term "terrorism" comes from Latin terrere, "to frighten" via the French word terrorisme, which is often associated with the regime de la terreur, the Reign of Terror of the revolutionary government in France from 1793 to 1794. A leader in the French revolution, Maximilien Robespierre, proclaimed in 1794, "Terror is nothing other than justice, prompt, severe, inflexible; it is therefore an emanation of virtue; it is not so much a special principle as it is a consequence of the general principle of democracy applied to our country's most urgent needs." The Committee of Public Safety agents that enforced the policies of "The Terror" were referred to as "Terrorists." The English word "terrorism" was first recorded in English dictionaries in 1798 as meaning "systematic use of terror as a policy." The term appeared earlier in English in newspapers, such as a 1795 use of the term in The Times. The Oxford English Dictionary still records a definition of terrorism as "Government by intimidation carried out by the party in power in France between 1789-1794. Generally, a policy intended to cause terror in those against whom it is adopted."
1.2. Terrorism: definitions given by different sources
Federal Bureau of Investigation of USA:
"The unlawful use of force or violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government or civilians population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives.
Domestic terrorism is the unlawful use, or threatened use, of force or violence by a group or individual based and operating entirely within the United States or its territories without foreign direction committed against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives.
International terrorism involves violent acts or acts dangerous to human life that are a violation of the criminal laws of the United States or any state, or that would be a criminal violation if committed within the jurisdiction of the United States or any state. These acts appear to be intended to intimidate or coerce a civilian population, influence the policy of a government by intimidation or coercion, or affect the conduct of a government by assassination or kidnapping. "
Department of Justice of USA:
"The term "terrorism" means premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetrated against non-combatant targets by sub-national groups or clandestine agents, usually intended to influence an audience.
The term "international terrorism" means terrorism involving citizens or the territory of more than one country.
The term "terrorist group" means any group practicing, or that has significant subgroups that practice, international terrorism. "
Webster's University Dictionary
Systematic use of violence, terror, and intimidation to achieve an end.
The Oxford English Dictionary
(a) Policy intended to strike with terror those against whom it is adopted; (b) the employment of methods of intimidation; (c) the fact of terrorizing or condition of being terrorized.
Webster's New International Dictionary
(a) Act of terrorizing, or state of being terrorized; specify: the system of the Reign of Terror. (b) A mode of governing, or of opposing government, by intimidation. (c) Any policy of intimidation.
The American Heritage Dictionary
The unlawful use or threatened use of force or violence by a person or an organized group against people or property with the intention of intimidating or coercing societies or governments, often for ideological or political reasons.
1. Alan B. Krueger and David Laitin - "Misunderestimating " Terrorism, 2001.
2. A Legal Theory of International Terrorism, 1998.
3. Early History of Terrorism, 2002.
4. Endlers, W. Sander, T - The Political Economy of Terrorism, 2000.
5. Frey, B. F. - Dealing with Terrorism, 2002.
6. Hoffman Bruce - Inside Terrorism, 1996.
7. International Terrorist Incidents - by the US Department of State, 2003.
8. Joiner, T. - Why People Die by Suicide, 1980.
9. Jeffrey Record - Bounding the Global War on Terrorism, 2006.
10. Udha Ramachandran - Death behind the wheel in Iraq, 2005.
11. What is Terrorism? - Problems of Legal Definition - 27 University of New South Wales Law Journal 270, 2001.
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