The Britsh Empire was the largest empire in history and, for over a century, was the foremost global power. It has the origins in the overseas possessions and trading posts established by England between the late 16th and early 18th centuries. I consider the fact that the representative emblem of the Britsh empire is the Monarchy. The Britsh monarchy is the constitutional monarchy of the United Kingdom, its dependencies and its overseas territories. It is a well know fact that it is the most popular monarchy in the world and it has conections with most monarchies in Europe.
I chose this topic because I have an interest in discovering and learning about the British culture, and the British Monarchy it is a powerful element. In my paper work I intend to describe the royal family with it's members, to describe the rules that they have to follow and what is their role in the society. My intenstions are to capture the Monarchy and the royal family beyond the lavish parties, the princess dresses, hats and just some titles for the crown. They are an institution that has kept its special status throughout the ages and it remains as complex, as powerful and popular as ever.
The first chapter consists of detalied facts regarding the history of the Monarchy.
Secondly, I looked into the life of some of the most important members of the present Monarchy considering aspects of their biographies. I also explained some guidelines about titles and succession.
In Chapter 3, I wrote about the importance of religion, while in Chapter 4, I wrote about Royal residences that have been setting for nearly 1,000 years of British history. Chapter 5 includes aspects of the Monarchy today. It is the oldest form of government in the United Kingdom and today it is a constitutional monarchy. Chapter 6 is about royal fashion and the rules they have to respect when they choose an outfit. Lastly , Chapter 7 is about History of the British Royal Pups.
CHAPTER I: History of the Monarchy
Monarchy is the oldest institution of government in the United Kingdom. Until 1603 English and Scottish Crowns were separate; after this date one monarch reigned in the United Kingdom.
- English monarchy
Following Viking raids and settlement in the ninth century, the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Wessex emerged as the dominant English kingdom. Alfred the Great secured Wessex, achieved dominance over western Mercia, and assumed the title "King of the English". His grandson Ethelstan was the first king to rule over a unitary kingdom roughly corresponding to the present borders of England, though its constituent parts retained strong regional identities. He conquest of England in 1066 by William, Duke of Normandy, was crucial in terms of both political and social change. The new monarch continued the centralisation of power begun in the Anglo-Saxon period, while the Feudal System continued to develop.
Edward Longshanks, was far more successful in maintaining royal power and responsible for the conquest of Wales. He attempted to establish English domination of Scotland. However, gains in Scotland were reversed during the reign of his successor, Edward II, who also faced conflict with the nobility. In 1311, Edward II was forced to relinquish many of his powers to a committee of baronial "ordainers"; however, military victories helped him regain control in 1322. Nevertheless, in 1327, Edward was deposed by his wife Isabella. His 14-year-old son became Edward III. He claimed the French Crown, setting off the Hundred Years' War between England and France. His campaigns conquered much French territory, but by 1374, all the gains had been lost. Edward's reign was also marked by the further development of Parliament, which came to be divided into two Houses. In 1377, Edward III died, leaving the Crown to his 10-year-old grandson Richard II. Like many of his predecessors, Richard II conflicted with the nobles by attempting to concentrate power in his own hands. In 1399, while he was campaigning in Ireland, his cousin Henry Bolingbroke seized power. Richard was deposed, imprisoned, and eventually murdered, probably by starvation, and Henry became king as Henry IV.
Henry IV was the grandson of Edward III and the son of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster; hence, his dynasty was known as the House of Lancaster. For most of his reign, Henry IV was forced to fight off plots and rebellions; his success was partly due to the military skill of his son, the future Henry V. He's own reign, which began in 1413, was largely free from domestic strife, leaving the king free to pursue the Hundred Years' War in France. Although he was victorious, his sudden death in 1422 left his infant son Henry VI on the throne and gave the French an opportunity to overthrow English rule.
King Henry VII neutralised the remaining Yorkist forces, partly by marrying Elizabeth of York, a Yorkist heir. Through skill and ability, Henry re-established absolute supremacy in the realm, and the conflicts with the nobility that had plagued previous monarchs came to an end. The reign of the second Tudor king, Henry VIII, was one of great political change. Religious upheaval and disputes with the Pope led the monarch to break from the Roman Catholic Church and to establish the Church of England (the Anglican Church. Wales - which had been conquered centuries earlier, but had remained a separate dominion - was annexed to
- Neil Grant, ,,Kings and Queens", Happer Collins Publishers Ltd, 1999
- Richard Johnstone - Bryden, ,,The Royal Yacht Britannia: The Official History", Conway Press Ltd, 2000
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